NURS 6541:Week 2: Infants Toddler and Preschoolers Essay Assignment Paper

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NURS 6541:Week 2: Infants Toddler and Preschoolers Essay Assignment Paper

NURS 6541: Primary Care of Adolescents and Children | Week 2

While every child develops a little differently, most infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet the same basic growth and development milestones. When milestones are not met, it is often a sign of an underlying health issue. Consider Maddie’s story. In early infancy, she successfully met each of the expected growth and development milestones and was even able to roll over by her 6th month. However, at 9 months, she suddenly stopped developing normally. She quit babbling and did not learn how to crawl until she was 15 months old. Maddie did not start walking until age 3, and at age 4, she was still being spoon-fed with baby food. In Maddie’s case, growth and development milestones were not met because of autism (Autism Society, 2011). As an advanced practice nurse, you must be able to identify signs of abnormal growth and development in patients like Maddie. Whether you facilitate treatment for these patients or refer them for specialized care, it is essential to offer support and guidance to these patients and their families.

This week you examine normal and abnormal growth and development in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. You also explore developmental red flags and assessment and management tools for these age groups.

Learning Objectives

By the end of this week, students will:

  • Assess patients for developmental red flags of abnormal development
  • Analyze the stages of physical, social, and cognitive development for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers
  • Differentiate between normal and abnormal growth and development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers
  • Evaluate assessment and management tools, guidelines, and strategies for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers

Learning Resources

Required Readings

  • Burns, C. E., Dunn, A. M., Brady, M. A., Starr, N. B., Blosser, C. G., & Garzon, D. L.  (Eds.). (2017). Pediatric primary care (6th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.



    • Chapter 5, “Developmental Management of Infants” (pp. 61-79)This chapter explores aspects of normal development of infants including milestones and identifies developmental red flags.


    • Chapter 6, “Early Childhood” (pp. 80-100)This chapter examines aspects of normal development of toddlers and preschoolers and identifies common developmental issues for patients in this age group.


    • Chapter 10, “Nutrition” (pp. 166-185)This chapter describes nutrition-related health problems in pediatric patients. It also provides guidelines for diagnosing and managing different types of nutrition disorders.


    • Chapter 11, “Breastfeeding” (pp. 198-215)This chapter examines the benefits, contraindications, and dynamics of breastfeeding. It also identifies common breastfeeding problems.


    • Chapter 12, “Elimination Patterns” (pp. 216-232)This chapter explores normal and abnormal patterns of bowel and urinary elimination. It also describes strategies for diagnosing and managing dysfunctional elimination syndrome.


    • Chapter 14, “Sleep and Rest” (pp. 273-284)This chapter provides strategies for the prevention and management of sleep problems in pediatric patients. It also identifies special considerations for children with chronic disorders.


  • Chapter 17, “Role Relationships” (pp. 311-338)This chapter explores circumstances that create role-relationship problems in family units such as violence, neglect, maltreatment, and physical and sexual abuse. It also presents strategies for assessing and managing families presenting with these circumstances.

Hagan, J. F., Jr., Shaw, J. S., Duncan, P. M. (Eds.). (2017). Bright futures: Guidelines for health supervision of infants, children, and adolescents (4th ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


    • Review: “Promoting Healthy Nutrition” (pp. 167-192)This chapter examines the impact of environment and culture on patient behaviors related to food and nutrition. It also explores essential components of nutrition for children from preconception through adolescence.


    • Review: “Promoting Physical Activity” (pp. 193-203)This chapter describes physical activity as a growing problem. It also identifies strategies for promoting physical activity, including age-appropriate activities for infants, children, and adolescents.


    • Review: “Promoting Safety and Injury Prevention” (pp. 235-256)This chapter explores two categories of issues relating to safety and injury prevention and examines strategies for promoting safety among infants, children, and adolescents.


    • “Infancy Visits” (pp. 303- 499)This chapter examines the care of infants. It focuses on wellness visits from prenatal to 11 months, identifying specific health issues, common parental concerns, and anticipatory guidance for parents.


  • “Early Childhood Visits” (pp. 501-647)

This chapter explores the care of children from ages one to four. It identifies issues related to their health, behavior, nutrition, and safety, as well as anticipatory guidance for family support.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Immunization. Retrieved from


This website provides information related to vaccines and diseases. It also presents strategies for helping families make immunization-related decisions.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Vaccines & immunizations. Retrieved from


This website presents information related to immunizations including recommendations, requirements, preventable diseases, and side effects. It also provides updated policy statements regarding immunizations.

NURS 6541:Week 2: Infants Toddler and Preschoolers Essay Assignment Paper

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013c). Strategies for determining red flags. Retrieved from


Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 10 minutes.


In this video program, Dr. Dawn Garzon discusses best practices and strategies for identifying developmental red flags in clinical settings.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013b). Growth and development milestones. Retrieved from the CDN database. (NURS 6541)

The interactive media presentation explores the growth and development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers.

Wellness visits are an important part of pediatric primary care. During these visits, patient growth and development are assessed. As an advanced practice nurse who performs these assessments, you must be able to distinguish between normal and abnormal growth and development to recognize red flags. While some patients may not meet milestones due to differences in rates of development, abnormal development might also be a red flag of an underlying problem. In this Discussion, you examine the following case studies and consider potential developmental red flags.

Discussion board posting assignments are assigned alphabetically by FIRST NAME to ensure all cases are covered and discussed.

  • Case Study 1: A-F
  • Case Study 2: G-M
  • Case Study 3: N-Z

Case Study 1

A mother brings in her 16-month-old, Brittany, for treatment of an acute illness. During the history, the mother reports that her mother-in-law is concerned about the toddler’s development. Further questioning reveals the following:

  • Brittany was a term infant born vaginally with no intrapartum complications. Birth weight was 8 pounds 1 ounce and current weight is 26 pounds 9 ounces.
  • She was breastfed until 12 months of age and now drinks 24 ounces of whole milk and eats table foods daily.
  • Physical milestones are as follows: Rolled front to back at 6 months, developed pincer grasp at 11 months, crawled at 8 months, and began cruising at 10 months. She does not walk independently.
  • Social development includes mimicking adult behavior, four-word vocabulary (mama, dada, baba, and no), follows one-step commands, and quiets easily when comforted.

Case Study 2:

You see a 30-month-old named Brian for a well-child visit. His mother reports the following development:

  • Physical: Walks independently, runs, able to climb stairs alternating feet, makes a tower of nine cubes, and is able to button his pants.
  • Social: Follows one-step commands, uses one-word sentences, and has a vocabulary of approximately six words. He is resistant to nighttime and feeding routines, he has marked temper tantrums, and Mom states he does not calm when she tries to comfort him.

Case Study 3

Jose is a 36-month-old who presents for a preschool evaluation. His father reports the following development:

  • Physical: Walks, runs, and jumps independently, walks up stairs alternating feet, pedals a three-wheeler, scribbles, copies circles and squares, and is able to balance on one foot for 2 to 3 seconds.
  • Social: Recognizes three colors; speech is 75% understandable; uses three- to four-word sentences; talks about friends, favorite activities, and family; frequently engages in imitative play; has an imaginary friend; does stutter on occasion when excited or when intent on getting something said. Will typically repeat the first word in a sentence three to four times, but does not repeat syllables or consonants. This happens three to four times a week.

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s media presentations, as well as “Developmental Management of Infants” and “Developmental Management of Toddlers and Preschoolers” in the Burns et al. text.
  • Think about how physical, social, and cognitive development vary during infancy, toddlerhood, and the preschool years. Reflect on normal versus abnormal growth and development and consider the decision-making process of identifying and managing red flags of abnormal development.
  • Select one of the three case studies provided. Reflect on the patient information included in the case study and consider any developmental red flags.
  • Reflect on standardized screening tools, clinical guidelines, and management strategies that would be used to assess and manage the patient in your selected case study.

By Day 3

Post an explanation of the following:

  1. Developmental red flags that presented on the stages of normal physical, social, and cognitive development for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Based on the red flags identified within the physical, social, and cognitive what additional questions should you ask? What additional examinations will you conduct?
  2. Explain how you differentiated between normal and abnormal growth and development for this patient.
  3. Identify which standardized screening tools, clinical guidelines, and management strategies you might use to assess and manage this patient and why.
  4. Health, promotion and anticipatory guidance:
    1. Based on the child’s age, discuss which immunizations this child should have received by now?
    2. When are the next set of immunizations? Which ones should be given?
    3. When should this child return to clinic?

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the ways listed below. Respond to colleagues who selected different case studies than you did.

  • Explain any red flags that you think your colleagues may have missed.
  • Explain whether you would have interpreted any of the red flags differently.
  • Explain the next steps you would recommend for this patient in terms of treatment and management.
  • Explain how the management plan might change if the patients in the case studies your colleagues selected were at a different age.


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